Forage Technical Reference Encyclopedia

Here you will find an alphabetized database of all our best reference materials on most forage related subjects. Find the answers to your technical questions, arranged by crop or management topic. We have gathered the best resources on each crop and subject for your reference, including articles written by our sister company, King’s AgriSeeds, as well as materials from university extension services. These articles are meant to go beyond the crop-specific tech sheets that accompany the product listings and teach management and rotation fundamentals.

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Agronomy 101AlfalfaBahiagrassBeef ProductionBirdsfoot TrefoilBloatBrassicasCloverCornCover CropsCowpeasCrabgrassDrill CalibrationEquipment MaintenanceFarming Systems and Crop RotationFeed PricesFertilityForage PreservationFrost SeedingGrassesHayHay in a DayHigh Forage DietsHorsesInterseeding InformationItalian RyegrassManureNurse CropsNutrientsNutritionOatsOrganicPasture ManagementPestspHPresentationsRed CloverResearch DataRyegrassSilage CalculatorsSmall GrainsSoilSoil TestingSorghumSoybeansSudangrassTall FescueTeffTriticaleWeed Management and Herbicide ResistanceSeasonal Reference

Agronomy 101

VA Tech Agronomy Handbook

Alfalfa

Alfalfa Germination & Growth
University of Wisconsin

Alfalfa Management Guide
Dan Undersander et al., University of Wisconsin 

Alfalfa Management in Georgia
Dennis W. Hancock et al., University of Georgia

Alfalfa Weevil
Penn State

Alfalfa Winter Injury
Penn State

Dragging before cutting in alfalfa stands
King’s AgriSeeds

Establishing the right alfalfa-grass balance
Hay and Forage Grower

Established Stand Management of Alfalfa
Penn State 

Extend Alfalfa Stands with a Grass Interseeding
King’s AgriSeeds

Fall dormancy of alfalfa – what does it really mean?
Hay and Forage Grower, March 2016

Harvest Management of Alfalfa
Penn State

Herbicides for Spring Weed Control in Alfalfa
Dwight Lingenfelter and Bill Curran, Penn State Weed Science

How old is too old for an alfalfa stand?
King’s AgriSeeds

KingFisher Alfalfas
Southeast AgriSeeds trifold brochure

Organic Alfalfa Production Guide
Martin Guerena and Preston Sullivan, ATTRA-NCAT

Pack, pack, pack after seeding
King’s AgriSeeds

Potato Leafhopper Control in Alfalfa
J. Whalen & B. Cissel, University of Delaware

Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa
Penn State

Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa
Ohio State University

Sampling and Management of Potato Leafhopper in Alfalfa Grown in the Northeastern United States
E. J. Shields and D. R. Specker, Department of Entomology, Cornell University

Seeding Alfalfa back into Alfalfa – Alfalfa Autotoxicity
Dennis Cosgrove and Dan Undersander, University of Wisconsin

Short Rotations for Alfalfa Profitability
Penn State

Thickening an Existing Alfalfa Stand
Rhonda Gildersleeve, Dan Undersander and Tim Wood, University of Wisconsin

Using Summer Annuals To Boost Weak Alfalfa Stands
King’s AgriSeeds

Value of Aggressive Rotations in Alfalfa
Mike Velde, Alforex

Verticillium Wilt of Alfalfa
Gary C. Bergstrom, Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University

Winter Survival of Alfalfa
Penn State 

Bahiagrass

The Management and Use of Bahiagrass
Dennis W. Hancock et al., University of Georgia

New Bahiagrasses Give Southeasterners Options
Fae Holin, Hay and Forage Grower

Beef Production

Beef Cattle Performance on Tall Fescue
Brian Thomas Campbell, University of Tennessee

Forage Management for Beef Cattle
King’s AgriSeeds brochure

A Survey of Grass-finished Beef Producers in the Northeastern U.S.
Penn State

Birdsfoot Trefoil

Birdsfoot Trefoil Factsheet
Penn State Extension

Birdsfoot Trefoil NRCS Plant Factsheet
USDA-NRCS

Cutting management of Alfalfa, Red Clover and Birdsfoot Trefoil UC044
Penn State Extension

Bloat

Pasture Bloat: Prevention and Treatment
Ed Duren, Extension Animal Scientist, University of Idaho and Cecil R. Miller, Technical Services Veterinarian, Smith Kline Beecham

Tips for Preventing Pasture Bloat
Jere Wingert, Penn State Extension

Brassicas

Braco white mustard and Biofumigation
DLF Pickseed

Nutritional Values & Grazing Tips for Forage Brassica Crops
King’s AgriSeeds

Oats & Forage Brassica Crops for Grazing
King’s AgriSeeds

Turnips, Kale, and Other Greens Used to Extend Grazing Season on Georgia Pastures
University of Georgia

Clover

Clover Tool – an easy, interactive overview of the clovers.
Smith Seeds

Red Clover: Yesterday’s  Forage in Tomorrow’s Rotations
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Red Clover: Old Forage for a Modern Dairy
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Corn

Efficacy of Seed Treatment Fungicides for Agronomic Crops
Ohio State University Extension

Effect of Starch Type on Optimizing Amino Acids in Diets of Dairy Cows
Schwab, et. al., Department of Animal Sciences, Cornell University

Effects of weather on yields – the 2014 corn crop
King’s AgriSeeds

Growing degree days and growth requirements for corn

The importance of seed Fungicides and Insecticides
University of Wisconsin

Investing time adjusting your planter pays off
Burros Seed

Keys to optimal corn yields, N to P and K ratios
Feedstuffs, December 29, 2014

Masters Choice and Floury Grain

MasterGraze and Cowpea Silage
Neil Tietz, Hay and Forage Grower, November 2014

Seed Treatment Fungicide Options For Corn
South Dakota Cooperative Extension 

Understanding Corn Test Weight
University of Wisconsin

Traits and Tech Information

Insect Resistance Management Stewardship Guide (Syngenta)

Insect Resistance Management Refuge Calculator

Syngenta Stewardship Agreement

Cover Crops

King’s Agriseeds Cover Crop Information by Dave Wilson, Agronomist

Cover Crop Product Information Guidelines with USDA Plant Hardiness Zones

Cover Crops for Vegetable Growers

Growing no-till pumpkins in a killed cover crop mulch system

Summer Cover Crops

Understanding Cover Crops, Benefits, Selection and Establishment

Herbicide Rotation Restrictions and Cover Crops

Corn Herbicide Rotational Restrictions
Penn State

Herbicide Carryover – Corn and Soybeans
Penn State

Herbicides and Fall Cover Crop Establishment
Penn State

Herbicide Persistence and Rotation to Cash and Cover Crops
Penn State

Other Cover Crop Resources

Bees and cover crops: Using flowering cover crops for native pollinator conservation
Penn State Extension

Choose Your Fall Cover Crop Scenario
King’s AgriSeeds

A Comprehensive Guide to Cover Crop Species Used in the Northeast United States
Shawnna Clark, NRCS – Plant Materials Program

Cover Crops and Seed Size – How Much Diversity is Enough?
King’s AgriSeeds

Cover Crop and Summer Annual Field Day In Pictures – Williamsburg PA 2014
King’s AgriSeeds

Cover crop Chart – Growth Cycle, Relative Water Use, Plant Architecture
USDA-ARS

Cover Crop Mixes
King’s AgriSeeds

Designing Cover Crop Programs
King’s AgriSeeds trifold brochure

Dual Purpose Cover and Forage Crop Mixes: Above and below ground there’s more than meets the eye!
King’s AgriSeeds

Fall Planting for A Successful Spring
King’s AgriSeeds

Farmscaping With Pollinator Mixes
King’s AgriSeeds

Hairy Vetch as a Cover Crop
Penn State

Long-Term Cover Crops for Conservation, Orchards, and Vineyards
King’s AgriSeeds Tech Sheet

Managing Cover Crops Profitably: e-book
USDA – SARE

Rolling Cover Crops for Northeastern Grain Production
Penn State with Dave Wilson and The Rodale Institute

Spring and Summer Cover Crops for Reclaiming a Field
King’s AgriSeeds

Spring Cover Crops
King’s AgriSeeds

Summer Cover Crops When It’s Dry
King’s AgriSeeds

Suppressing Weeds Using cover Crops
Penn State

Tips for Termination of Cover Crops
Bill Curran, Penn State University

Cowpeas

Cowpeas as Forage and Cover Crop
King’s AgriSeeds

Mastergraze and Cowpeas: Managing a Dense Harvest
King’s AgriSeeds

Crabgrass

Crabgrass as a Forage and Hay Crop
University of Florida

Crabgrass: A Pasture Pick-Me-Up
King’s AgriSeeds Inc.

Drill Calibration

Drill Calibration Calculator (Interactive: enter your numbers in the gray boxes, results appear in the yellow boxes below)
King’s AgriSeeds

How to Calibrate Drills
King’s AgriSeeds

Seed Drill Calibration
King’s AgriSeeds

Equipment Maintenance

Time for A Planter Tune Up – and other links to maintenance guides
Penn State Extension

Farming Systems and Crop Rotation

3 Growing Windows and How to Use Them
King’s AgriSeeds

Alternative Continuous Cover Dairy System
Lisa Bauer, USDA-SARE

Forages for wet soils
King’s AgriSeeds

Is it too late for winter planting?
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Minimum Till Haylage
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Planning to Multicrop for the Northeast
David Hunsberger, King’s AgriSeeds

Relative Maturity in Corn and Higher Yields In Rotation
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Rotations: Makes Money and Sense
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Seeding Rate and Planting Date
Dave Wilson, King’s AgriSeeds

Systems Approach for Wet Soils
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Weather Proofing Your Forage Supply & Harvest Management of High Yield Winter Forage
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Weather: The Great Leap Back to Normal
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Fertility

Nitrogen: Get the most out of your forage
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Subsoil Phosphorus Loss
Madeline Fisher, CSA News, February 2015

Forage Preservation

Dry Hay

Making Fermented Forages

Frost Seeding

Frost Seeding
King’s AgriSeeds brochure

Frost Seeding
King’s AgriSeeds

Frost Seeding- A Cheap Alternative to Improve Hay and Pasture Land
Heather Darby, University of Vermont

Grasses

Grass Identification Matrix
Penn State

Identifying Pasture Grasses
University of Wisconsin

Hay

High Energy Hay Mixtures
King’s AgriSeeds brochure

Hay in a Day

Hay in a Day: What does it really mean?
King’s AgriSeeds

Leaving A Wide Swath
Fae Holin, Hay and Forage Grower, February 1, 2005

High Forage Diets

High Forage Rations and Reduced Displaced Abdomens
Fae Holin, Hay and Forage Grower, September 2010

Which alternative forage source is right for you?
King’s AgriSeeds

Horses

Pasture and Hay for Horses
King’s AgriSeeds brochure

Interseeding Information

Aerial Seeding Cover Crops: Answers to 5 Most-Asked Questions
Three Rivers Ag Consulting

Aerial Seeding of Cover Crops
USDA-NRCS

Cover Crop Interseeding (Effectively establishing cover crops earlier)
Cornell Sustainable Cropping Systems Lab

Cover Crop Interseeding Effects on Establishment, Weed Control, and Crop Yield
Chris J. Pelzer et al., Penn State

Impacts of Interseeding on Corn Yields
Penn State Extension

Improving the Success of Interseeding Cover Crops in Corn – Includes information about herbicides
Penn State Extension

InterSeeder Brochure March 2014
Interseeder Technologies

Interseeder Tech Sheet
King’s AgriSeeds

Interseeder Operators Manual
Interseeder Technologies

Italian Ryegrass

Green Spirit Italian Ryegrass, Dieter Harle Part 1

Green Spirit Italian Ryegrass, Dieter Harle Part 2

Tetraploids and diploids – which is which?
King’s AgriSeeds Inc.

Manure

Integrating Cover Crops and Manure in No-Till
Tim Harrigan et al., Michigan State

Late Winter and Early Spring Manure Application Considerations
Douglas Beegle, Penn State

Protect Water Quality with Slurry-Enriched Seeding of Cereal Covers on Corn Silage Ground
Tim Harrigan, Michigan State

Spring manure applications on top of a cover crop
King’s AgriSeeds

Nurse Crops

Nurse Crops
King’s AgriSeeds

Nutrients

Managing Potassium for Crop Production
Penn State Extension

Nutrition

Forage Quality in Perspective
Penn State

Forage Systems and Nutrition Overview

Grasses in Cropping System for Ration
Fae Holin, Hay and Forage Grower, September 2010

Tool Predicts How Forage Will Feed
Fae Holin, Hay and Forage Grower, November 2013

Oats

Forage Oats
King’s AgriSeeds brochure

Oats as a companion crop for spring-sown forage
King’s AgriSeeds

Organic

Inoculants and Soil Amendments for Organic Growers
Sunjeong Park et al., Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio State University

North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide
North Carolina State University

Organic Alfalfa Production Guide
ATTRA-NCAT

Pasture Management

Clipping pastures for a healthy stand
King’s AgriSeeds

Converting Cropland and Pasture Improvement
Penn State

Cutting Management of Alfalfa, Red Clover, and Birdsfoot Trefoil (PSU Agronomy Facts 7)
Penn State

Dormant Seeding and Frost Seeding
King’s AgriSeeds

Economics of Pasture-Based Livestock Production
Penn State

Forage Production for Beef and Dairy: Balancing Perennials and Annuals for Yield and Quality
King’s AgriSeeds brochure

Forage Quality
Penn State

Get a Fresh Start from Toxic Fescue
King’s AgriSeeds

How do I handle my hay fields and pastures in a severe drought
King’s AgriSeeds

Lush Spring Pastures – When is the feed too good?
King’s AgriSeeds

Managing pasture surplus and shortage
Penn State

Management of Perennial Pastures in the Summer -For the Transition Zone
King’s AgriSeeds

Maximizing Perennial Production for Livestock
King’s AgriSeeds brochure

Over-grazing to Aid Pasture Renovation
King’s AgriSeeds

Overgrazing – The Sin of All Sins
Progressive Forage Grower

Pasture Forage Species-Annuals
Penn State

Pasture Management and Length of Stay
Penn State

Perennial Pasture Forage Species
Penn State

Planning Grazing Systems
Penn State

Renovating Pastures with Interseeding
King’s AgriSeeds

Toxic Fescue? Start Fresh
King’s AgriSeeds

Weed control in pastures
King’s AgriSeeds

Pests

9 Best Management Practices to Beat the Sugarcane Aphid
Sorghum Checkoff

Managing Rootworm Resistance in Corn
King’s AgriSeeds

The Sugarcane Aphid
King’s AgriSeeds

pH

Nutrient availability at different pH

Nutrient availability at different pH

Presentations from King’s Agriseeds meetings

Southeast Region

Baleage Production, by Dr. John Bernard, UGA

Forage Systems to Increase Productivity

The High Cost of Cheap Seed

How Your Feeding Program Affects Profitability – by Dr. John Bernard, UGA

Masters Choice Floury Grain

Sorghums

Sugarcane Aphid

Red Clover

Management of Red Clover as a Cover Crop
Penn State

Red Clover
Penn State

Red Clover Establishment, Management, and Utilization
Dan Undersander et al., University of Wisconsin

Research Data

2014 King’s AgriSeeds Research Data

Ryegrass

Annual & Italian Ryegrass Management
King’s AgriSeeds

Control of Annual Ryegrass
Oregon Ryegrass Growers Seed Commission

Silage Calculators

Average Density of Silage in Storage – Calculator
University of Wisconsin

Bunker Silo Sizing
University of Wisconsin

Crop Processor Adjustment for Corn Silage
University of Wisconsin

Determining Silage Density
University of Wisconsin

Estimating the Weight of Forage in a Forage Wagon
Daniel W. Wiersma and Brian J. Holmes, University of Wisconsin

Small Grains

Small Grain Growth Stages
King’s AgriSeeds

Understanding Wheat Quality – What Bakers and Millers Need and What Farmers Can Do
University of Maine

Soil

Know Your Pasture’s Soil
King’s AgriSeeds

Soil Basics
King’s AgriSeeds

Soil Fertility Management for Forage Crops: Maintenance
Penn State

Soil Health Indicators
King’s AgriSeeds

Soil pH and Soil Fertility
King’s AgriSeeds

Soil Testing

Soil Testing Basics
Penn State

Sorghum

9 Best Management Practices to Beat the Sugarcane Aphid
Sorghum Checkoff

Forage Sorghum – PSU Agronomy Facts
Penn State University

Forage Sorghum Boot Stage Harvest
King’s AgriSeeds

Forage Sorghum Seed Spacing at various Populations and Row Widths

Grain Sorghum Mid-South Production Handbook
United Sorghum Checkoff Program

Harvesting BMR Forage Sorghum
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Insect Pest Management of Sorghum and Warm-Season Forages
University of Georgia

More High Quality Forage with Less Water than Corn
American Cattlemen, February 2013

Selecting the correct seeding rate for sorghum based on its seeds per pound
King’s AgriSeeds

Should You Opt for the Legume? Forage Sorghum with Cowpeas
King’s AgriSeeds

Sorghum Variety Trial Summary 2012
Virginia Tech

Sorghum Update: uncovering the potential
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Sorghum: the good, the bad, the ongoing learning process
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Summer Annual Management Going into Early Fall
King’s AgriSeeds

Why Sorghum
King’s AgriSeeds

Soybeans

2013 Soybean Report
Cornell University

Burndown for zone & no-tillage Glyphosate resistant Soybeans
Cornell University

Chemical weed control in soybeans
Cornell University

Efficacy of fungicides for soybean disease control based on appropriate application timing
Cornell University

Effectiveness of selected soybean herbicides on annual weeds
Cornell University

Growing Soybeans in Northern New York
Northern New York Agricultural Development Program

Growing Soybeans in New York State
Cornell University

Soybean IPM scouting calendar
Cornell University

Soybean pests and crop monitoring activities
Cornell University

Soybean rust fungicide decision guidelines
Cornell University

Sudangrass

Hi-Gest Sudangrass Management Guide
Cal/West Seeds

Tall Fescue

The Economics of Replacing Endophyte Infected Fescue with Novel Endophyte Fescue on Cow-Calf and Beef Stocker Operations
USDA-NRCS

Toxic Fescue? Start Fresh
King’s AgriSeeds

Teff

Teff Grass Crop Overview and Forage Production Guide
Don Miller, Teff Breeder/Researcher

Triticale

Getting the most out of winter forages
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Triticale Forage
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development

Triticale Vs. Rye
Kansas State University

Weed Management and Herbicide Resistance

Control of Marestail in No-till Soybeans
Mark Loux, OSU Weed Science The Ohio State University and Bill Johnson, Purdue Extension Weed Science

Johnsongrass
Penn State

Johnsongrass Identification
Virginia Tech

Management of Herbicide-Resistant Horseweed (Marestail) in No-Till Soybeans
Soy Checkoff

Seasonal Reference

Fall considerations

Choosing the Right Annual Grain Forage
King’s AgriSeeds

Fall Planting for A Successful Spring
King’s AgriSeeds

Summer Annual Management Going into Early Fall
King’s AgriSeeds

Winter considerations

Getting the most out of winter forages
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Last Chance Forage
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Rejuvenate pastures with frost seeding
King’s AgriSeeds

Winter Farm Equipment and Maintenance
King’s AgriSeeds

Spring considerations

Getting prepared to plant your spring annuals
King’s AgriSeeds

Spring Green Up – N and other nutrients
King’s AgriSeeds

Summer considerations

Choosing Summer Cover Crops
King’s AgriSeeds

How do I handle my hay fields and pastures in a severe drought?
King’s AgriSeeds

Harvesting BMR Forage Sorghum
Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems

Mastergraze and Cowpeas: Managing a Dense Harvest
King’s AgriSeeds

Pick your Summer Annuals
King’s AgriSeeds

Summer Cover Crops When It’s Dry
King’s AgriSeeds

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